Hydrogen: Fuelling the future

24 Oct 2014

Hyundai 2015 Tucson fuel cell

Renewable technology has made great strides to become more sophisticated, with new ways to harness resources becoming available every day. As Europe moves toward reducing carbon emissions, with strict reduction targets to achieve by 2020, the door has been opened for wide adoption of hydrogen technology in particular.

Hydrogen (H2) has been used in industrial applications for more than 100 years, and is playing a key role in the global transition to a low-carbon economy. It is the most commonly occurring chemical element in nature while being particularly environmentally friendly, giving it enormous potential for zero-emission mobility.

The profile of H2 as an environmentally friendly energy carrier is growing due to its large operating range and quick refuelling capabilities. H2 fuelling is seeing a surge in popularity, and there are currently some 200 H2 refuelling stations in operation around the world with concrete plans for 100 more in Japan and another 68 stations in California, both by 2016, plus 400 more within 2023 in Germany. These regions have been pioneers in H2 fuelling, with a number of stations, in many cases supported by a push for further initiatives including pilot programs creating and storing hydrogen for fuelling made from renewable sources including wind power stations.

In the UK, a significant number of the technical challenges to getting H2 into vehicles have been addressed and key industry stakeholders and the UK Government are focusing on how to roll out this new fuel and vehicle technology to the mass market.

Leading the effort in addressing the many challenges and issues to rolling out hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles is UK H2 Mobility, a joint project involving key stakeholders including the industrial gas industry, OEMs, the UK Government and refuelling infrastructure providers. BOC, a member of The Linde Group, is an active member of the UK H2Mobility project and is playing a key role in helping to make a nationwide H2 refuelling network in the UK a reality.

BOC's Hydrogen fuelling station at the Honda of the UK Manufacturing site in Swindon was the first public-access H2 refuelling station to be opened in the UK. This was a result of a collaboration led by BOC, alongside partners including Honda of the UK Manufacturing and economic development company, Forward Swindon. When it was installed in 2011, this was the UK's first full-fledged 700bar H2 filling station and more have begun operation around the country since.

As more major manufacturers introduce hydrogen cars, the potential for more fuel cell cars on the roadways is ripe. This was realised with the introduction of this year's HyFive project, sponsored in part by the Mayor of London's Office, which aims to make greater strides in introducing H2 vehicles in major European cities including the Capital.

The agreement will see the deployment of 110 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles across European locations including Copenhagen, Munich and London, and the development of new clusters of hydrogen refuelling stations. Touted by Mayor of London Boris Johnson as a key development in making hydrogen a more viable option for London motorists, it is hoped that this will enhance the public's knowledge and demonstrate the viability of H2 vehicles.

The Linde Group was one of the participants of HyFive, and we are proud to be a part of this landmark project. With more than a century of working with hydrogen, we have become the largest global provider of hydrogen plants and a leading supplier for fuelling technologies.

Linde is the only industrial gas company with proprietary technologies and in-house development for H2 fuelling systems, such as the easy-to-maintain ionic compressor. In addition, Linde has recently expanded its manufacturing centre in Austria to a serial production capability that is necessary to meet the growing global demand for its novel H2 refuelling and compression technologies.

We firmly advocate hydrogen fuelling and hope that, through projects such as HyFive, Britain can begin to see the wider benefits of H2 fuelling and, hopefully, adapt as readily as continental Europe.

The future is bright for hydrogen fuelling, and the industry is reaching a stage where ‘just' opening a hydrogen refuelling station is no longer ground-breaking. As clean technology companies and auto manufacturers continue to make strides in the hydrogen infrastructure, the mind-set will become more widespread and more hydrogen-powered cars, as well as a need for more fuelling stations, will be apparent on British roadways.

Nick Rolf is business development manager - innovation at BOC, part of The Linde Group

Footwear industry wakes up to waste

23 Oct 2014


The carbon footprint of the footwear industry is truly massive in size. It is estimated that some 330 million pairs of shoes are sold each year within the UK alone.

Sadly, most of these end up in landfills, with conservative estimates suggesting that the average pair takes more than 50 years to fully decompose. What's more, a slew of nasty chemicals found within the glues, rubbers and even leather materials used to manufacture our shoes is also released into the environment.

As part of a wider problem regarding sustainability found within the fashion world, the footwear industry has been slow on the uptake. However, consumers are beginning to clamour for eco-friendly footwear that is both recyclable and provides healthy working environments for those within the industry. Organic clothing, like this collection from Zalando, is only now becoming popular amongst fashionistas and footwear is just a few steps behind.

Walk a Mile in My Shoes

A number of innovative approaches to this problem are beginning to present themselves - from the simplicity of traditional recycling to more complex creations that employ sustainable design to re-imagine the humble shoe.

Heavy weights such as Gucci, who have created a line of shoes manufactured from bio-plastic; and Nike, who take old shoes and turn them into rubber pellets for running tracks, have both made strides in creating a more sustainable industry.
However, perhaps the most interesting developments on this front have come from smaller manufacturers with big ideas.

LYF (Love Your Footprint) have taken the concept of the shoe back to the drawing board by designing a type of modular shoe that can be taken apart and rebuilt. Using stitching rather than gluing, the LYF shoes are designed for disassembly, allowing consumers to change pieces that are worn out or simply replace the body of the shoes with new fabric as the mood takes them.

Other smaller boutique companies, especially ones in mainland Europe, pride themselves on locally sourced materials, European-based factories and a move away from dangerous chemicals and adhesives. In some cases waste materials such as coconut husks and cork have been used to further the sustainable aspect of these shoes.

Despite the mountains of discarded shoes currently being sent to landfill, the footwear industry is making progress. New ideas and a greater commitment to what happens to footwear when it's no longer wanted is certainly the green way forward.

Step up to renewable smartphone power

16 Oct 2014

Three eco-rated phones in the grass

They line the pockets of an estimated 1.75 billion people worldwide. They double as cameras, mp3 players, organisers and an almost inconceivable variety of other portable devices. They have even begun to monitor your heart rate, blood pressure and other vital statistics.

However, the liberation by innovation associated with our much-loved smartphones, smartwatches and fitness trackers has begun to leave a distinctly sour taste in our mouths - and that taste, of course, is the lingering metallic flavour of lithium-ion and its rather lacklustre staying power.

Sadly, the onward march of progress within the smartphone world has not been matched by relative developments within the world of power cells. Battery technology is most definitely stuck in the technological dark ages and, as our devices become increasingly power hungry, a growing number of people are to be found tethered to the nearest wall socket as they impatiently wait to post their next selfie.

What's more, the growing pile of waste material created simply by the chargers alone is beginning to pose a problem in itself. Perhaps then, at least until battery capacities can be increased, it is time for a different approach to the problem.

Kickstarting Kinetic Energy

There have been a number of attempts to provide portable power sources to increase smartphone longevity; from the simplicity of hooking up to your laptop to the more convenient inclusion of an additional battery.

However, one area that is just beginning to come into its own is the idea of harnessing our very own kinetic energy - that is, the energy created by the everyday movement of our limbs. The idea is not necessarily a new one and there have been plenty of attempts to harness the latent source of human energy over the course of history.

Leonardo's flying machines (for a reminder of what they look like, check out these on Posterlounge) attempted to use the power of our limbs to reach the heavens. Of course they failed and unfortunately the conversion of mechanical energy created by walking, running or other movements into electrical energy has proven to be equally elusive.

However, most recently, the nPower PEG has enjoyed some success despite its large bulk and high cost. It was the first commercially available kinetic energy module to become available back in 2012. Sadly, perhaps due to its size and cost, it never really took off - leaving the stage free for the diminutive and suitably innovative Ampy to take the limelight.

Contoured to fit comfortably to your body and optimised to store a week's worth of physical activity, Ampy is the next generation in kinetic energy capturing device - giving consumers a chance to access the technology at less than half the price of the PEG. The creators of Ampy suggest that around 10,000 steps, 1 hour of cycling or 30 minutes of running will give you a full 3 hours extra charge once hooked up to your smart phone. That's completely free, clean and renewable energy each and every time you take a walk.

However, perhaps most importantly for the future of mobile devices, the creators of Ampy are confident that their technology can cross over to the devices themselves - meaning your smartphone could be powered exclusively by you and your movements without the need for an extra unit in your pocket or bag.

This then, has the potential to make all of our mobile devices completely eco-friendly in the foreseeable future. Check out Ampy on their Kickstarter campaign and join the kinetic energy revolution.

Organic cotton demand could result in shortage

01 Oct 2014


Despite recent public commitments made by big businesses, the cotton industry is facing a struggle to increase its global production of organic produce. Organic cotton - which can be manufactured to the same texture and quality as standard cotton - is grown without the necessity of any pesticides or fertilisers, avoids a significant drain on water supply and soil, and increases the overall well-being of farmers and pickers. The eco-benefits are clear, but organic cotton still faces difficulties.

Top companies such as H&M and C&A are leading the charge for the organic cotton trade revolution by making stout commitments to use 100 per cent organic cotton by 2020. Swedish fashion giant H&M increased its use of organic cotton by 29 per cent in 2013, a rise from 7.8 per cent in 2012.The company has also invested US $2.7m, in the Better Cotton Initiative's Fast Track Program.

However it is not just these big brands making a change. There are a slew of smaller organic companies such as Zen Bedrooms, which offer sustainably resourced mattresses, clothes and pillow cases.

Increasing demand is one thing, but being able to meet that demand is quite another. In a document recently released by Textile Exchange, figures have shown that the overall production of natural fibres dropped by three per cent in 2013; standard cotton fell by 4.1 per cent last year.

The deficiency of good quality cotton suppliers that are producing cotton without GMO (genetically modified organism) is clear to see. Despite the fact that only approximately one per cent of the cotton manufactured is organic, demand will soon likely exceed supply. One hurdle to the rise in organic cotton is the fact that many farmers seemingly lack the business savvy and will required to go organic, as a significant amount of expert knowledge and verification of the organic status is required.

An aspiration for improvement

It is generally hoped that huge markets like China and the USA will step up organic cotton production, due to the continued efforts by organisations such as Textile Exchange and the Better Cotton Standard System. The overall aim is to equip farmers with the tools and know-how, reducing water consumption and eradicating the use of pesticides.

These efforts to increase the supply of organic cotton are of paramount importance, as Textile Exchange's Managing Director LaRhea Pepper states, "We are looking holistically at the organic cotton supply chain. Organic cotton farmers are the beginning of a long value chain and surveying the entire system is the best way to get an inclusive story." Whether the industry will be able to cope with a higher demand is, however, still to be seen.

The potentially lucrative business of eco-fashion

30 Sep 2014


While the astronomical figures bandied around the UN Climate Change Summit in New York may or may not suggest that world leaders are finally facing up to an era of global uncertainty, one industry lagging far behind the pledges made makes Franciois Hollande's billion dollar commitment seem like a drop in the ever-rising ocean. We are of course, speaking of the filthy-rich fashion industry and its multifarious malpractice when it comes to sustainability and ecological responsibility.

With an estimated 75 million workers and a worldwide market value of 1.7 trillion dollars, the fashion industry commands a huge part of the global economy and, as populations explode, creates a seemingly exponential quantity of waste. However, despite the litany of charges levelled against it - all the way from resource monopolization through worker exploitation to the unbridled consumerism inherent within the western world - this most facile of industries is beginning to face up to its stiletto-heeled carbon footprint.

Perhaps unsurprisingly for an industry concerned with image and social hierarchy, rather than embrace the concept of eco-fashion, the industry has positively shied away from a perceived sacrifice to quality and design alongside the assumption that the term is in itself loaded with "worthy” attitudes. It seems that, unlike other industries, where owners of a Tesla S or an energy efficient Passivhaus may consider their purchases as contemporary status symbols, the fashion industry has been moving in the opposite direction – stigmatising eco-fashion to the point where designers are reticent to employ the term.

However, in the wake of London Fashion Week, and with the help of a few celebrity endorsements, it seems that this attitude is beginning to change. What's more, for the savvy entrepreneur who can combine the ever-growing popularity of sustainable living with the colossal profits of the fashion world, it seems that this sea-change could potentially be extremely lucrative.

Whilst haute couture may be somewhat off the eco-pulse, smaller companies and style movements have been making in-roads for years - often in surprising and innovative ways. Whether it is a simple commitment to using less water during production like BRAX at Peter Hahn, a re-evaluation of profit distribution and ethics found within the prisoner based workforce of Heavy Eco, or the more traditional act of recycling old tyres like Ethiopia's Sole Rebels, eco-fashion is alive and well with a number of independent manufacturers burning the torch.

Of course, the final decision about the future of eco-fashion lies with the consumer and their spending habits. However, if the fashion industry is successful in shedding this self-created stigma, the benefits both to the consumer, the industry and the planet will be truly remarkable.

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BusinessGreen's Industry Voice blog offers experts from across the low carbon economy the opportunity to present their views, opinions and analysis on the latest green business developments

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